Primary Neuroendocrine Tumor (Carcinoid Tumor) of the Testis: A Case Report with Review of Literature
Sandeep Singh Lubana, Navdeep Singh, Hon Cheung Chan, David Heimann
(Department of Internal Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Queens Hospital Center, Queens, NY, USA)
Am J Case Rep 2015; 16:328-332
The term carcinoid (Karzinoide) was coined by German pathologist Oberndorfer in 1907. Primary testicular carcinoid tumors (TCT) are rare, constituting 0.23% of all testicular tumors. In this report we describe a case of primary TCT of the testis and present the results of an extensive literature review to cover all the aspects of carcinoid tumor, including the definition, classification, origin, presentation, diagnostic evaluation, management, prognosis, and follow-up.
CASE REPORT: A 34-year-old male presented with chronic right scrotal swelling with recent onset of pain. Radical orchiectomy revealed a solid intratesticular tumor confined to the testis and epididymis, without lymphovascular invasion. Histology was consistent with neuroendocrine carcinoma. The tumor was staged as pT1 N0 M0 S2. Immunohistochemistry was positive for neuroendocrine markers. An extratesticular carcinoid tumor was ruled out. Urinary excretion of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and Chromogranin A were within normal range.
CONCLUSIONS: It is important to follow serotonin levels since the elevated levels of serotonin can cause carcinoid heart disease. If metastatic lesions are not accessible for resection, a trial of octreotide therapy can be given. This case also adds to the rare reports in the literature of primary carcinoid tumors of the testis having low malignant potential. The literature review highlights new diagnostic and therapeutic interventions and stresses the importance of long-term follow-up due to evidence of delayed metastasis or recurrences and also due to emergence of new complications as a result of improved prognosis and prolonged survival.
Keywords: Carcinoid Tumor - surgery, Adult, Humans, Male, Orchiectomy, Testicular Neoplasms - surgery, Testis - ultrasonography