Desirable and undesirable immunotropic effects of antibiotics. Immunomodulating properties of cefaclor
Marek Dąbrowski, Wanda Stankiewicz
CaseRepClinPractRev 2001; 2(1):82-86
The type of effect exerted on complex immunoregulatory functions of the immune system is an important criterion of selection of an antibiotic. The assessment of effect of an antibiotic on the immune system should take into consideration the fact of functional relationships between the immune system and the nervous and hormonal systems utilizing a common range of factors modifying biological processes. The above makes it possible for the antibiotic not only to interact directly with the elements of the immune system, but also to exert indirect influences dependent on potential neuro- and endocrinotropic effects of the drug. Besides highly effective bactericidal activity, cefaclor demonstrates the ability to exert favorable effect on some of the specific and non-specific immune response and immunoregulation mechanisms which are important from clinical point of view. It enhances phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of granulocytes and macrophages, and favorably modifies the co-operation of monocytes and T lymphocytes. In this way, it corrects, both in vivo and in vitro, the immunoregulatory disturbances induced and aggravated by an infection incident. This effect is reflected by the improvement of impaired immunoregulating activity of T lymphocytes, manifested as increased suppressive activity, as well as the correction of the monokine level ratio to the decrease of proinflammatory monokine IL-1b and relative increase of anti-inflammatory IL-1ra. Thus, normalizing the disturbed immunoregulation mechanism, cefaclor enhances the protective potential of the immune reaction, reducing at the same time the risk of immunogenic clinical complications, such as persistent inflammatory conditions and allergic and/or autoaggressive responses. Such immunomodulating properties of cefaclor may be useful in clinical treatment of patients with immune disorders leading to chronic inflammations and secondary allergic or autoaggressive reactions.
Keywords: Cefaclor, antibiotic treatment, immunotropic effects of antibiotics, immunomodulation