Unknown ethiology, Unusual clinical course, Challenging differential diagnosis, Unusual setting of medical care, Rare disease, Educational Purpose (only if useful for a systematic review or synthesis)
Benjamin M. Heyman, Matthew J. Chung, Amy L. Lark, Scott Shofer
Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, USA
Am J Case Rep 2013; 14:253-257
Background: Anorectal melanoma is a rare cancer with a poor prognosis. The mean survival after diagnosis is 15–25 months. At the time of diagnosis, 61% of patients have local regional lymph node metastases, and 21% have distant metastases. The lungs are a common site for metastasis for all tumors including melanoma. However endobronchial metastasis is a rare phenomenon. Endotracheal metastases are even rarer, occurring in only 5% of patients with extrapulmonary endobronchial metastases. It is most commonly seen in breast, colorectal, and kidney cancers. It is extremely rare for cutaneous melanoma. The mean survival after diagnosis is only 15 months and treatment options are limited.
Case Report: We report the case of a 64 year-old gentleman with newly diagnosed metastatic anorectal melanoma. A 3 cm by 3 cm bluish-black, oval-shaped, exophytic mass protruding from his anus was found on physical exam. Endobronchial and endotracheal metastasis to the trachea were discovered on computed tomography and he was subsequently taken to the operating room for argon plasma coagulation laser recanalization of his trachea via rigid bronchoscopy, and resection of his anal mass.
Conclusions: We have presented the first known case of anorectal melanoma with endobronchial metastasis. Palliative APC laser recanalization was used to prevent asphyxiation from the endotracheal mass. Endobronchial metastasis is uncommon and can be easily mistaken for primary bronchogenic carcinoma. It should always be considered when evaluating patients with new lung masses.
Keywords: metastasis, anorectal, Bronchoscopy, treatment, endobronchial, Melanoma