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Medical Science Monitor Basic Research


Plasmablastic Lymphoma of the Anal Canal in an HIV-Infected Patient

Unusual clinical course, Challenging differential diagnosis, Educational Purpose (only if useful for a systematic review or synthesis)

Lucia Antunes Chagas, Gustavo Bittencourt Camilo, Dequitier Carvalho Machado, Débora Ribeiro Vidal, Celso Estevão de Oliveira, Gabriela Cumani Toledo, Gabriel Peixoto Castro Oria, Monique de França Silva, Romulo Varella de Oliveira, Agnaldo José Lopes

Brazil Department of Radiology, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Am J Case Rep 2014; 15:543-549

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.892313

Available online:

Published: 2014-12-06


Background: The advent of antiretroviral therapy increased the life expectancy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and, consequently, the morbidity and mortality due to neoplasms. Plasmablastic lymphoma is one such neoplasm that generally presents with involvement of the oral cavity; cases of extra-oral involvement are rare.
Case Report: We report a case of plasmablastic lymphoma in a 46-year-old woman for whom the initial clinical manifestation was a painless perineal tumor accompanied by fecal incontinence.
Conclusions: The possibility of this neoplasm should be considered in patients with HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) because its early diagnosis is essential so that the start of the treatment is not delayed.

Keywords: Diagnosis, Differential, Biopsy, Anus Neoplasms - diagnosis, HIV, HIV Infections - complications, Lymphoma, AIDS-Related - diagnosis, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Neoplasms, Plasma Cell - diagnosis