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Sepsis Caused by Achromobacter Xylosoxidans in a Child with Cystic Fibrosis and Severe Lung Disease

Challenging differential diagnosis, Diagnostic / therapeutic accidents, Rare disease, Educational Purpose (only if useful for a systematic review or synthesis)

Kim Stobbelaar, Kim Van Hoorenbeeck, Monique Lequesne, Jozef De Dooy, Erwin Ho, Erika Vlieghe, Margaretha Ieven, Stijn Verhulst

Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, Antwerp University Hospital, Edegem, Belgium

Am J Case Rep 2016; 17:562-566

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.896577

Available online:

Published: 2016-08-08

BACKGROUND: Achromobacter xylosoxidans is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen that can be responsible for various severe nosocomial and community-acquired infections. It has been found in immunocompromised patients and patients with several other underlying conditions, but the clinical role of this microorganism in cystic fibrosis is unclear.
CASE REPORT: We describe a case of septic shock caused by A. xylosoxidans in a 10-year-old child with cystic fibrosis and severe lung disease.
CONCLUSIONS: As the prevalence of A. xylosoxidans in cystic fibrosis patients is rising and patient-to-patient transmission is highly probable, further studies are warranted to determine its role and to document the appropriate treatment strategy for eradication and long-term treatment of this organism.

Keywords: Achromobacter denitrificans, Child, Cystic Fibrosis - complications, Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections - drug therapy, Respiratory Insufficiency - microbiology, Sepsis - microbiology