Catheter-Directed Therapy in Acute Pulmonary Embolism with Right Ventricular Dysfunction: A Promising Modality to Provide Early Hemodynamic Recovery
Asli Gorek Dilektasli, Ezgi Demirdogen Cetinoglu, Nilufer Aylin Acet, Cuneyt Erdogan, Ahmet Ursavas, Guven Ozkaya, Funda Coskun, Mehmet Karadag, Ercument Ege
Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Uludag University Faculty of Medicine, Bursa, Turkey
Med Sci Monit 2016; 22:1265-1273
Catheter-directed therapy (CDT) for pulmonary embolism (PE) is considered as an alternative to systemic thrombolysis (ST) in patients with hemodynamically unstable acute PE who are considered at high bleeding risk for ST. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CDT in the management of acute PE with right ventricular dysfunction (RVD). The primary outcomes were mortality, clinical success, and complications. Secondary outcomes were change in hemodynamic parameters in the first 24 hours following the procedure.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medical records of consecutive patients diagnosed as having acute massive or submassive PE with accompanying RVD treated by immediate CDT at our institution from January 2007 to January 2014 were reviewed. Patient characteristics, mortality, achievement of clinical success, and minor and major bleeding complications were analyzed in the overall study group, as well as massive vs. submassive PE subgroups. Change in hemodynamic parameters in the second, eighth, and 24th hours after the CDT procedure were also analyzed.
RESULTS: The study included 15 consecutive patients (M/F=10/5) with a mean age of 54.2±16.6 years who underwent immediate CDT. Nine of the patients had submassive PE, and 6 had massive PE. In-hospital mortality rate was 13.3% (95% CI, 0.04–0.38). One major, but not life-threatening, bleeding episode was evident in the whole group. Hemodynamic parameters were stabilized and clinical success was achieved in 14/15 (93.3%; 95% CI, 70.2–98.8) of the patients in the first 24 hours. Notably, the hemodynamic recovery was significantly evident in the first 8 hours after the procedure.
CONCLUSIONS: CDT is a promising treatment option for patients with acute PE with RVD with no fatal bleeding complication. In experienced centers, CDT should be considered as a first-line treatment for patients with acute PE and RVD and contraindications for ST, with the advantage of providing early hemodynamic recovery.
Keywords: Catheterization - methods, Adult, Endovascular Procedures - methods, Hemodynamics, Hemorrhage - etiology, Hospital Mortality, Pulmonary Embolism - therapy, Risk Factors, Thrombolytic Therapy - methods, Ventricular Dysfunction, Right - therapy