Complete Atrioventricular Block Complicating Mitral Infective Endocarditis Caused by Streptococcus Agalactiae
Challenging differential diagnosis, Patient complains / malpractice, Rare co-existance of disease or pathology
Masaru Arai, Koichi Nagashima, Mahoto Kato, Naotaka Akutsu, Misa Hayase, Kanako Ogura, Yukino Iwasawa, Yoshihiro Aizawa, Yuki Saito, Yasuo Okumura, Haruna Nishimaki, Shinobu Masuda, Astushi Hirayama
Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
Am J Case Rep 2016; 17:650-654
Infective endocarditis (IE) involving the mitral valve can but rarely lead to complete atrioventricular block (CAVB).
CASE REPORT: A 74-year-old man with a history of infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus gordonii (S. gordonii) presented to our emergency room with fever and loss of appetite, which had lasted for 5 days. On admission, results of serologic tests pointed to severe infection. Electrocardiography showed normal sinus rhythm with first-degree atrioventricular block and incomplete right bundle branch block, and transthoracic echocardiography and transesophageal echocardiography revealed severe mitral regurgitation caused by posterior leaflet perforation and 2 vegetations (5 mm and 6 mm) on the tricuspid valve. The patient was initially treated with ceftriaxone and gentamycin because blood and cutaneous ulcer cultures yielded S. agalactiae. On hospital day 2, however, sudden CAVB requiring transvenous pacing occurred, and the patient’s heart failure and infection worsened. Although an emergent surgery is strongly recommended, even in patients with uncontrolled heart failure or infection, surgery was not performed because of the Child-Pugh class B liver cirrhosis. Despite intensive therapy, the patient’s condition further deteriorated, and he died on hospital day 16. On postmortem examination, a 2×1-cm vegetation was seen on the perforated posterior mitral leaflet, and the infection had extended to the interventricular septum. Histologic examination revealed extensive necrosis of the AV node.
CONCLUSIONS: This rare case of CAVB resulting from S. agalactiae IE points to the fact that in monitoring patients with IE involving the mitral valve, clinicians should be aware of the potential for perivalvular extension of the infection, which can lead to fatal heart block.
Keywords: Atrioventricular Block - etiology, Aged, Endocarditis, Bacterial - pathology, Fatal Outcome, Humans, Male, Streptococcal Infections - pathology, Streptococcus agalactiae