Rapid Virological Response After Early Treatment with a Combined Therapy of Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir in HCV Genotype 4 After Living Donor Liver Transplantation in a HCC Downstaged Patient: Case Report and Review of the Literature
Unusual clinical course, Challenging differential diagnosis, Unusual setting of medical care, Patient complains / malpractice
Aiman Obed, Abdalla Bashir, Anwar Jarrad
Department of Hepatobiliary and Transplant Surgery, Jordan Hospital, Amman, Jordan
Am J Case Rep 2016; 17:672-675
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4 (GT-4) is widespread in the Middle East, where it is responsible for the majority of HCV infections. It shows moderate treatment response rates when compared to other genotypes in the current era of interferon-based regimens. However, in the era of direct acting antiviral (DAA) drugs, its response is at least as good as observed for HCV genotypes 1-3.
CASE REPORT: We present a case of a 44-year-old patient with HCV cirrhosis. Since 2007, he has been treated for HCV infection with multiple ineffective regimens of interferon (INF) and ribavirin. A liver biopsy in 2010 revealed stage 5-6/6 indicating cirrhosis, which was later complicated by the occurrence of portal vein thrombosis and a large hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (maximum diameter 9 cm).
The patient was successfully treated with sorafenib, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), and radiofrequency ablation. After four TACE procedures, the patient’s AFP (alpha-fetoprotein) decreased remarkably and almost normalized. The HCC disappeared radiologically as shown by triple phase CT, MRI with contrast, and PET-CT.
He successfully underwent a living donor liver transplantation. Four weeks post liver transplantation he started treatment with sorafenib, and switched from tacrolimus to Rapamune (sirolimus) as immunosuppressant therapy. Ten weeks after liver transplantation, HCV treatment was introduced along with ledipasvir and sofosbuvir due to his increasing liver enzyme levels. A rapid viral response was achieved after 14 days. In total, the patient received 12 weeks of this treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: This case study might be of significance in informing early management and personalized treatment of patients with recurrent HCV GT-4 infections after liver transplantation, even in complex clinical surroundings.
Keywords: Benzimidazoles - therapeutic use, Antiviral Agents - therapeutic use, Carcinoma, Hepatocellular - surgery, Drug Therapy, Combination, Fluorenes - therapeutic use, Hepatitis C, Chronic - drug therapy, Liver Neoplasms - surgery, Liver Transplantation, Living Donors, Sofosbuvir - therapeutic use