Bug Smash, Bug Splash: A Case Report of an Unusual Transmission of American Trypanosomiasis with a Brief Review of the Literature
Challenging differential diagnosis, Rare disease, Educational Purpose (only if useful for a systematic review or synthesis)
Rafael Hernán Navarrete-Sandoval, Maximiliano Servín-Rojas
Department of Infectious Diseases, Hospital General de Cuernavaca “Dr. José G. Parres”, Cuernavaca, Mexico
Am J Case Rep 2016; 17:993-996
Chagas disease is a chronic parasitosis transmitted by the inoculation of infected triatomine feces into wounds or conjunctival sac, transfusion, congenitally, organ transplantation, and ingestion of contaminated food. The disease is classified into an acute and chronic phase; the latter is a life-long infection that can be asymptomatic or progress to cardiac or digestive complications.
CASE REPORT: We report a case of acute-phase Chagas disease, transmitted by the splash of gut content from an infected triatomine into the conjunctival mucosa.
CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of Chagas disease is made by the direct visualization of the parasite in blood smears during the acute phase of the disease; during the chronic phase of the disease the diagnosis is made by the detection of IgG antibodies. Parasitological cure can be achieved in up to 80% of the cases in acute phase of the disease, in contrast with less than 30% during the chronic phase.
Keywords: Acute Disease, Chagas Disease, Trypanosoma cruzi