Rare Purulent Cardiac Tamponade Caused by Streptococcus Constellatus in a Young Immunocompetent Patient: Case Report and Review of the Literature
Unusual clinical course, Challenging differential diagnosis, Educational Purpose (only if useful for a systematic review or synthesis)
(Department of Medicine, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar)
Am J Case Rep 2016; 17:855-859
Purulent pericardial tamponade is a very rare occurrence in the current era of widespread antibiotic use. It is even rarer when caused by Streptococcus constellatus: a microorganism usually classified among the normal flora of the human body. It is occasionally diagnosed with certain predisposing factors.
CASE REPORT: We present the third case of Streptococcus constellatus cardiac tamponade reported in the current medical literature, occurring in a previously healthy young man who was initially admitted and treated for possible community-acquired pneumonia. The patient required immediate subxyphoid pericardiocentesis. He was also treated successfully with a lengthy course of both intravenous and oral antibiotics. Two months post-hospitalization, he was confirmed clinically stable with complete resolution of his purulent effusion. We also conducted a review of the literature for all Streptococcus milleri group purulent pericardial infections between 1984 and 2015.
CONCLUSIONS: Purulent cardiac tamponade caused by Streptococcus constellatus is extremely rare. It can be life threatening, however. Early appropriate diagnosis and therapeutic intervention are critical for a good outcome.
Keywords: Cardiac Tamponade, Pericardiocentesis, Pericarditis, Streptococcus constellatus