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Breast Implant-Associated Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL): A Case Report

Challenging differential diagnosis, Unusual setting of medical care, Rare disease, Educational Purpose (only if useful for a systematic review or synthesis)

Sevan Evren, Thaer Khoury, Vishalla Neppalli, Helen Cappuccino, Francisco J. Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, Prasanna Kumar

USA Department of Medical Oncology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA

Am J Case Rep 2017; 18:605-610

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.903161

Available online:

Published: 2017-05-31

BACKGROUND: Anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL) are a rare type of primary breast lymphoma. The association between breast implants and ALCL was first described in 1997 and since then 34–173 cases have been presented. The annual incidence of breast implant-associated ALCL (BI-ALCL) is 0.1–0.3 per 100 000 women who undergo breast reconstruction, and cases are often underreported due to the rarity of these tumors. BI-ALCL arises from the inflammatory T cells surrounding the fibrous capsule, and most tumors are in situ.
CASE REPORT: Here, we present the case of a 51-year-old woman with ALCL following bilateral silicone breast implants. The patient presented with breast enlargement and tenderness 9 years following reconstructive surgery. Imagining studies showed fluid collection surrounding the affected breast implant. Staging studies and histocytopathology examination confirmed the presence BI-ALCL without capsular invasion or metastasis. Complete surgical excision was performed. The patient continues to be in complete remission.
CONCLUSIONS: Due to the rarity of these tumors, establishing the diagnosis of BI-ALCL can be challenging and requires a multidisciplinary approach. Clinicians should be aware of the relationship between breast implants and BI-ALCL.

Keywords: Antigens, CD30, Breast Implants, Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic