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Medical Science Monitor Basic Research


Complex Reconstruction with Flaps After Abdominoperineal Resection and Groin Dissection for Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Difficult Case Involving Many Specialities

Unusual setting of medical care

Claudia Reali, Richard Guy, Christopher R Darby, Lucy Cogswell, Roel Hompes

United Kingdom Colorectal Unit, Oxford University Hospitals, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom

Am J Case Rep 2018; 19:61-67

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.906818

Available online: 2018-01-17

Published: 2018-01-17


BACKGROUND: Anal squamous cell carcinoma accounts for about 2–4% of all lower gastrointestinal malignancies, with a distant disease reported in less than 5%. Although surgical treatment is rarely necessary, this often involve large dissections and difficult reconstructive procedures.
CASE REPORT: We present a complex but successful case of double-flap reconstruction after abdominoperineal resection and groin dissection for anal squamous cell carcinoma (cT3N3M0) with metastatic right inguinal lymph nodes and ipsilateral threatening of femoral vessels. A multi-specialty team was involved in the operation. A vascular and plastic surgeon performed the inguinal dissection with en bloc excision of the saphenous magna and a cuff of the femoral vein, while colorectal surgeons carried out the abdominoperineal excision. The 2 large tissue gaps at the groin and perineum were covered with an oblique rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap and a gluteal lotus flap, respectively. A partially absorbable mesh was placed at the level of the anterior sheath in order to reinforce the abdominal wall, whereas an absorbable mesh was used as a bridge for the dissected pelvic floor muscles. The post-operative period was uneventful and the follow-up at 5 months showed good results.
CONCLUSIONS: An early diagnosis along with new techniques of radiochemotherapy allow patients to preserve their sphincter function. However, a persistent or recurrent disease needs major operations, which often involve a complex reconstruction. Good team-work and experience in specialized fields give the opportunity to make the best choices to perform critical steps during the management of complex cases.

Keywords: Carcinoma, Squamous Cell, Lymph Node Excision, myocutaneous flap, Surgical Mesh