Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency, a Rare Pathology: The First Pediatric Patient Reported in Colombia
Verónica Botero, Victor H. Garcia, Catalina Gomez-Duarte, Ana M. Aristizabal, Ana M. Arrunategui, Gabriel J. Echeverri, Harry Pachajoa
Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Valle del Lili Foundation, Cali, Valle del Cauca, Colombia
Am J Case Rep 2018; 19:669-672
Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency is a rare genetic metabolic lipid storage disease, with a high morbidity, and mortality, in children and adults. It is characterized by a mutation in the LIPA gene that causes an alteration of lipid metabolism, resulting in deposits of cholesterol esters and triglycerides in organs such as the liver, blood vessels, and gastrointestinal tract. Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency is predominantly caused by the mutation c.894G>A, seen in approximately 50–70% of patients. Our objective is to report the first pediatric case of lysosomal acid lipase deficiency in a pediatric patient in Colombia.
CASE REPORT: The patient is a 14-year-old boy with isolated hepatomegaly since 6 years of age without a family history of dyslipidemia. In the pediatric control, laboratory exams revealed dyslipidemia, and a hepatic biopsy was performed, revealing severe fibrosis with septation and grade 3 microvesicular steatosis (>75%). He was referred to our center and was suspected to have lysosomal acid lipase deficiency. Enzymatic activity was measured, showing absent activity. Confirmatory diagnosis with genetic sequencing showed a pathological homozygous mutation of c.894G>A.
CONCLUSIONS: Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency can manifest as early- or late-onset, with variable and severe signs and symptoms. The late-onset form has a broad spectrum of manifestations with mild symptoms, leading to under-diagnosis, which increases the actual disease burden. Early diagnosis is essential to initiate enzyme replacement therapy, since the natural disease course can be changed. More studies should be conducted in Latin America to evaluate the prevalence of the disease.
Keywords: dyslipidemias, Rare Diseases, Sterol Esterase, Wolman Disease