29 June 2018 : Case report
Challenging differential diagnosis, Rare diseaseRaffaele Longo1ABCDEF*, Véronique Dorvaux2ABDE, Eric Chatelain3BCDE, Philippe Quétin4ABDE, Francesca Plastino1BDEF, Nada Eid1BCDE, Nathalie Marcon5BCDE, Laurent Hennequin6BCDE, Marco Campitiello1BCDE
Am J Case Rep 2018; 19:763-766
BACKGROUND: Myeloid sarcoma is a rare extramedullary soft tissue neoplasm composed of myeloblastic cells, usually associated to hematologic tumor disorders and a poor prognosis. Its diagnosis is very difficult as radiological images are not specific. Histology and immunohistochemistry are necessary for an accurate diagnosis.
CASE REPORT: We report the case of 46-year-old, Caucasian, non-smoker male, treated in 2014 by orchiectomy and systemic chemotherapy for a stage IIB testicular seminoma. Considering the rapid increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels without any evident medical reason, a computed tomography/positron emission tomography (CT/PET) scan was performed and revealing a diffuse, nodular, peritoneal tumor infiltration associated with multiple mesenteric and mediastinal adenopathies. Laparoscopy confirmed a diffuse tumor infiltration of the peritoneum. Histology and immunohistochemistry were consisted with the diagnosis of a myeloid monoblastic sarcoma. Cytology of bone marrow documented an monocytic acute myeloid leukemia. The patient started a systemic induction chemotherapy with high dose cytarabine and idarubicin that was complicated by an infectious pneumonia and colitis, and a grade IV thrombocytopenia leading to a brain subdural hemorrhage and quickly to patient’s death.
CONCLUSIONS: We describe a rare, peritoneal, myeloid sarcoma in a young patient who had been treated by systemic chemotherapy for testicular seminoma 4 years earlier. The patient was clinically asymptomatic and presented only elevated LDH levels without any evident clinical reason. Considering the persistence of this biochemical abnormality, more investigations were performed leading to a diagnosis of peritoneal myeloid sarcoma associated with monocytic acute myeloid leukemia, probably secondary to the past chemotherapy.
Keywords: Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute, Sarcoma, Myeloid, Testicular Neoplasms
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