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Giant Splenic Aneurysm with Arteriovenous (A-V) Shunt, Portal Hypertension, and Ascites

Challenging differential diagnosis, Management of emergency care, Rare co-existance of disease or pathology

Kiriakos Ktenidis, Vasiliki Manaki, Konstantinos Kapoulas, Eleni Kourtellari, Michalis Gionis

Greece Vascular Surgery Clinic, AHEPA University General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

Am J Case Rep 2018; 19:1410-1415

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.911106

Available online: 2018-11-27

Published: 2018-11-27


#911106

BACKGROUND: Splenic aneurysms are rare, asymptomatic, and usually derive from previous surgical interventions. Endovascular repair is the best option, but when A-V shunt is present, open repair might be more suitable.
CASE REPORT: A 43-year-old man presented to the Internal Medicine Department of AHEPA University Hospital with symptoms of fever and ascites. He was an ex-medical student with a history of sickle cell anemia, who had undergone urgent splenectomy and cholecystectomy 26 years ago and had a transit ischemic attack at the age of 21 years. Diagnostic imaging control revealed a giant splenic aneurysm 9.8 cm in diameter and 5 cm in length, with a concomitant A-V shunt (due to common ligation of the vessels after splenectomy and long stump presence with concomitant erosion of arterial wall). The patient underwent open surgery and cross-clamping the orifice of the splenic artery, also including the splenic vein, and the vessels were ligated. Post-operatively, the patient remained in the Intensive Care Unit for 48 h and suffered a portal vein thrombosis treated with appropriate anticoagulants. One month later, he had acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis and paralytic ileus and underwent laparotomy performed by general surgeons.
CONCLUSIONS: Giant splenic aneurysms are rare and are usually caused by previous splenectomy and preservation of a long-vessel stump. Immediate surgical repair is mandatory because of the high risk of rupture.

Keywords: Aneurysm, Ruptured, Arteriovenous Fistula, Ascites, Conversion to Open Surgery, Hypertension, Portal, Splenic Diseases



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