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11 January 2019 : Case report  USA

A Case of T-Cell Large Granular Lymphocytic Leukemia and Renal Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Amyloidosis

Challenging differential diagnosis, Diagnostic / therapeutic accidents, Rare disease, Educational Purpose (only if useful for a systematic review or synthesis)

Julie Fu123ABCDEF*, Lisa X. Lee14E, Ping Zhou4BCD, Teresa Fogaren1AE, Cindy Varga124E, Raymond L. Comenzo124ABCDEFG

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.912282

Am J Case Rep 2019; 20:43-47

Abstract

BACKGROUND: T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia (T-LGL) is a rare hematological malignancy that currently has no standard therapy. Immunoglobulin heavy chain amyloidosis (AH) involving the kidney is a rare condition and the pathology, diagnosis, clinical characteristics, and prognosis are becoming understood. This report is of a rare case of T-LGL associated with renal AH and discusses the approach to management.

CASE REPORT: A 57-year-old woman presented with symptoms of fatigue and she had proteinuria. A diagnosis of T-LGL associated with renal AH was made, which is an association that has not been previously reported in the literature. Given the dysregulation of her immune function due to her underlying T-LGL and her comorbidities, treatment options were limited. She was clinically stable and was initially observed. After one year, her symptoms of fatigue became worse, and her proteinuria increased. Treatment was initiated with the triple drug combination of bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone (CyBorD) with consideration for future hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Her clinical condition improved, with a reduction in proteinuria.

CONCLUSIONS: A rare case of T-LGL and renal AH is presented. Currently, there is no standard therapy for T-LGL and AH amyloidosis, and the approach, in this case, was to manage the patient initially with CyBorD triple chemotherapy.

Keywords: Amyloid, Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain, Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic, Amyloidosis, Antineoplastic Agents, Bortezomib, Cyclophosphamide, Dexamethasone, Drug Therapy, Combination, Fatigue, Glucocorticoids, Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains, Immunosuppressive Agents, Kidney Diseases, Middle Aged, Proteinuria

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American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923
American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923