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10-Year Follow-Up of Frequently Relapsed Chronic Eosinophilic Pneumonia Starting at 15 Years Old; Attempts to Treat with Inhaled Corticosteroid (A Case Report)

Unusual clinical course, Challenging differential diagnosis, Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment, Diagnostic / therapeutic accidents, Unexpected drug reaction , Clinical situation which can not be reproduced for ethical reasons

Norihide Murayama, Satoru Doi, Makoto Kameda

(Department of Pediatrics, Murayama Pediatrics, Osaka City, Osaka, Japan)

Am J Case Rep 2019; 20:822-827

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.915402

Published: 2019-06-11


BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic pneumonia is recognized both as an eosinophil-associated disease and as bronchial asthma. In eosinophilic pneumonia, the site of eosinophilic infiltration is mainly the alveolus and the peripheral airway; the disability of pulmonary function is restrictive, as opposed to from bronchial asthma, which has a relatively central side bronchus region and obstructive function. Differences in inflammatory region and the activation degree of T-cell and eosinophil parameters were predicted.
CASE REPORT: To determine the extent of inflammation and the region showing the inflammation in eosinophilic pneumonia, parameters like HLADRCD4/CD4 (%), CD25CD4/CD4 (%), ECP, soluble IL2R, and IL5 were examined in BALF and in peripheral blood during the active phase and remission phase. The percentage of HLADRCD4/CD4, IL-5, and the percentage of CD25CD4/CD4 were extremely high during the acute phase in BALF as compared to that in peripheral blood during the active and the remission phase. To avoid the adverse effects of systemic administration of steroids, we tried 5 different kinds of steroid through inhalation. We used%FVC by spirometry as a parameter to determine the recurrence of the disease. However, the inhaled steroids could not control the remission for long. This is the first report in which frequent recurrence of the disease was seen despite treatments and in which%FVC was used to determine the disease condition.
CONCLUSIONS: The principle site of inflammation in eosinophilic pneumonia is the peripheral bronchus and the alveolar area. Percent FVC can be a useful parameter for assessment of recurrence of the disease. In the present case, the disease could not be kept under control despite treatment with 5 different steroids through the inhalation route.

Keywords: Eosinophil Cationic Protein, HLA-DR Antigens, Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit, Interleukin-5



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