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Medical Science Monitor Basic Research


Spontaneous Fungal Peritonitis as a Rare Complication of Ascites Secondary to Cardiac Cirrhosis: A Case Report

Challenging differential diagnosis, Rare disease

Dharti Patel, Arshad Muhammad Iqbal, Ateeq Mubarik, Fahad Zafar, Salaah M. Siddiqui, Aamani Jupalli, Nikolay P. Mitzov, Salman Muddassir

USA Department of Internal Medicine, Oak Hill Hospital, Brooksville, FL, USA

Am J Case Rep 2019; 20:1526-1529

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.917757

Available online: 2019-10-17

Published: 2019-10-17


BACKGROUND: Spontaneous fungal peritonitis (SFP) is a life-threatening infection which occurs more commonly in patients with liver failure. SFP is not as common as spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) and has higher mortality rates due to late recognition and difficulty in differentiation between SFP and SBP. Spontaneous fungal peritonitis is extremely uncommon in patients with cardiac ascites due to a high protein content, which predisposes to a low risk of infections.
CASE REPORT: This report presents a rare case of spontaneous fungal peritonitis in a patient with cardiogenic ascites. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second known case of SFP occurring in a patient with cardiac cirrhosis. The patient did not respond to initiation of SBP treatment and after ascitic fluid grew Candida glabrata, the diagnosis of SFP was made. The patient’s clinical status improved after initiation of intravenous caspofungin.
CONCLUSIONS: SFP should be a differential diagnosis in patients who have cardiac or liver cirrhosis, who are not improving with empirical antibiotic therapy for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

Keywords: Ascites, Candida glabrata, peritonitis