Testicular Mixed Germ Cell Tumor Combined with Malignant Transformation to Chondrosarcoma: A Very Rare and Aggressive Disease
Unusual clinical course, Rare disease, Educational Purpose (only if useful for a systematic review or synthesis)
Mohammad Alrehaili, Emad Tashkandi
Department of Internal Medicine, King Abdullah Medical City, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
Am J Case Rep 2020; 21:e922933
Available online: 2020-05-20
Testicular mixed germ cell tumors (GCTs) represent a spectrum of malignancies that differ in terms of histopathology, clinical complications, and overall outcome. A variety of aggressive combinations containing different histological types have been described among such testicular tumors. However, a histopathology characterized by a combination of teratoma and choriocarcinoma, as seen in this case, in which the teratomatous component shows a secondary transformation to chondrosarcoma, is considered very rare.
CASE REPORT: The patient presented with progressive hemoptysis and dyspnea secondary to bilateral pulmonary cannon-ball lesions indicative of a metastatic process. His workup was remarkable for primary testicular cancer complicated by liver metastasis and very high levels of B-HCG at more than 175 000 mlU/ml. He deteriorated quickly with no improvement following the first cycle of Etoposide/Cisplatin (EP) chemotherapy regimen and died 15 days after starting cancer treatment. Such non-seminomatous GCTs with extrapulmonary visceral metastasis associated with very high tumor markers are deemed poor risk based on the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) criteria, with a reported 5-year overall survival rate reaching up to 73%.
CONCLUSIONS: This case is considered unique in terms of rapid clinical deterioration and lack of improvement following the standard EP chemotherapy regimen. This unusual dramatic presentation should draw attention to the possible association between the aggressiveness of the disease and its very rare histopathology.
Keywords: Chondrosarcoma, Choriocarcinoma, Mixed Tumor, Malignant, Teratoma, Testicular Neoplasms