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Medical Science Monitor Basic Research


A Rare Case of Non-Prosthetic Aortic Valve Infectious Endocarditis Caused by Achromobacter xylosoxidans

Rare disease

Ricardo Lessa de Castro, Neiberg de Alcantara Lima, Danielli Oliveira da Costa Lino, Thomas Austin Melgar

USA Department of Internal Medicine, Western Michigan University – Homer Stryker M.D. School of Medicine, Kalamazoo, MI, USA

Am J Case Rep 2020; 21:e923031

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.923031

Available online: 2020-06-04

Published: 2020-07-21

BACKGROUND: Achromobacter xylosoxidans is a ubiquitous environmental gram-negative bacterium, very resistant to antibiotics. Endocarditis caused by these bacteria is extremely rare, with only 20 cases described in the literature to our knowledge. Mortality rates are high, and treatment usually involves a combination of antibiotics and surgery. Nosocomial infections predominate with a strong association between bacteremia and immunosuppression.
CASE REPORT: A 19-year-old immunocompetent male presented with endocarditis He had interatrial and interventricular communication corrected at age 11 months and aortic coarctation correction at age 10. Initial echocardiogram showed a possible interventricular patch infection, which was later ruled out. He was treated initially for endocarditis with a combination of antibiotics, but because he remained febrile after appropriate antibiotic treatment, surgery was performed. The patient had a favorable outcome after surgery and was asymptomatic on follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS: Endocarditis caused by A. xylosoxidans is extremely rare. To date, only 20 cases of IT have been reported in the literature, of which only two involved a native valve. Given the scarcity of cases reported, there is no consensus on the best treatment.

Keywords: Achromobacter denitrificans, Endocarditis, Bacterial, Heart Valves