Ruptured Arteriovenous Malformation Anterior to the Brainstem to a Child with Subsequent Spontaneous Thrombosis: Case Report and Literature Review
Unusual clinical course, Management of emergency care
Dimitrios Panagopoulos, Georgios Markogiannakis, Marios Themistocleous
Department of Neurosurgery, Pediatric Hospital of Athens, Agia Sophia, Athens, Greece
Am J Case Rep 2020; 21:e923289
Available online: 2020-04-01
Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are considered to be abnormalities of congenital origin, presumably arising due to a disorder in the process of embryogenesis, in the phase of differentiation of premature vascular domes into mature arteries, capillaries, and veins. The end result of that process is the formation of direct arteriovenous communications, without intervening capillary beds.
CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 6-year-old female who suffered an abrupt deterioration of her level of consciousness due to a subarachnoid hemorrhage located in the basal cisterns. Radiological investigation with magnetic resonance arteriography-magnetic resonance venography (MRA-MRV) was negative, but digital subtraction angiography (DSA) revealed a micro-AVM in the vicinity of the brainstem. The patient subsequently developed communicating hydrocephalus and the repeat DSA, performed 1 month later, failed to re-imagine the lesion. Further workup with DSA 1 year after the ictus was negative for pathological findings.
CONCLUSIONS: There are a lot of controversies regarding the optimal imaging modality for surveillance of pediatric AVMs, the time period needed to follow-up a given lesion, even if it is considered treated, and the underlying mechanism of spontaneous thrombosis of untreated, yet ruptured, AVMs. All these issues, along with the unusual mode of evolution of the clinical picture of this lesion are discussed in detail, along with a review of the available literature.
Keywords: Arteriovenous Malformations, Brain Stem, Intracranial Thrombosis