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Medical Science Monitor Basic Research


Three Cases of Pediatric Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome Associated with COVID-19 Due to SARS-CoV-2

Unusual clinical course, Challenging differential diagnosis

Sabrina M. Heidemann, Bradley Tilford, Christian Bauerfeld, Amarilis Martin, Richard U. Garcia, Lauren Yagiela, Ashok P. Sarnaik

USA Children’s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI, USA

Am J Case Rep 2020; 21:e925779

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.925779

Available online: 2020-07-21

Published: 2020-08-13


BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection commonly presents as fever, cough, and shortness of breath in adults. Children are thought to have milder respiratory symptoms and to recover more quickly. We describe a new presentation of COVID-19 infection in children consisting of multisystem inflammation with decreased left ventricular function and evidence of lung disease.
CASE REPORT: Three children presented with fever, conjunctivitis, dry and cracked lips, rash, and/or cervical lymphadenopathy for at least 5 days. Two of these children required mechanical ventilation, and 1 of the 2 needed extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to support cardiorespiratory function. All of these children had moderate to severe hyponatremia and lymphopenia, which is usually seen in COVID-19. They were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and high-dose aspirin. All of the children recovered.
CONCLUSIONS: Early recognition of children with multisystem inflammation is important because they are at increased risk for deterioration. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and aspirin was used because this regimen has been shown to be beneficial in vasculitis of Kawasaki disease. The development of shock due to cardiac involvement may require ECMO.

Keywords: Aspirin, COVID-19, Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation, Immunoglobulins, Intravenous, Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome