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Medical Science Monitor Basic Research


Endovascular Therapy for Childhood Ischemic Stroke

Challenging differential diagnosis, Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment, Diagnostic / therapeutic accidents, Rare disease, Educational Purpose (only if useful for a systematic review or synthesis)

Malik Ghannam, Lara Zakarna, Issa Alawneh, Mustafa Al-Chalabi, Daniel Kenney-Jung

USA Department of Neurology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA

Am J Case Rep 2021; 22:e926529

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.926529

Available online: 2020-11-10

Published: 2021-01-05


BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke can have a tremendously negative impact on the fitness and well-being of a child. Because endovascular interventions may be of benefit in the adult stroke population, many investigators have recently evaluated the safety and benefits of pharmacological and non-pharmacological options in the pediatric stroke population and compared pediatric patients to their adult counterparts. Some of these trials have had promising results, showing the positive effects of endovascular treatment in children with arterial acute ischemic stroke due to large-vessel occlusion (LVO). The 2015 American Heart Association/American Stroke Association guidelines suggest that mechanical thrombectomy with stent retrievers may be a consideration in some patients who are younger than 18 years and have severe LVO, when treatment (groin puncture) is initiated within 6 h of symptom onset. However, the method remains under-studied in this age group.
CASE REPORT: A 7-year-old girl presented with migraine-like headache, right arm and facial weakness, and expressive aphasia 9.5 h after symptom onset. Her PEDS-NIH stroke scale score was 4. Upon further investigations, she was found to have a left middle cerebral artery cryptogenic stroke with a distal left M1 clot, which was successfully treated with mechanical thrombectomy. Huge improvement was noticed during her subsequent physical examination.
CONCLUSIONS: Endovascular therapy offers an exciting treatment option for the management of pediatric stroke. The extent of safety of mechanical thrombectomy among children who present with large-vessel occlusion over an extended time window remains unknown and warrants further investigations.

Keywords: Pediatrics, Stroke, Thrombectomy