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Medical Science Monitor Basic Research


Hypercalcemia and Unilateral Ovarian Mass in a Young Adult: A Case Report of Small Cell Ovarian Carcinoma

Challenging differential diagnosis, Rare disease

Gregor Vivod, Sebastjan Merlo, Nina Kovačević

Slovenia Department of Gynecological Oncology, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Am J Case Rep 2021; 22:e928959

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.928959

Available online: 2020-12-09

Published: 2021-01-26


BACKGROUND: Small cell ovarian carcinoma, hypercalcemic type is an uncommon malignant ovarian tumor entity with an unfavorable prognosis and a short overall survival rate. It mainly affects women of childbearing age.
CASE REPORT: We report a case in which a 31-year-old woman with small cell ovarian carcinoma, hypercalcemic type presented with unspecific symptoms. We emphasize the importance of treatment planning and address fertility-sparing surgical procedures, which remain a therapeutic dilemma.
CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of unspecific abdominal symptoms, unilateral tumor masses, and hypercalcemia may indicate the presence of malignant ovarian neoplasm in young adults. Histopathological examination of the mass should be performed by an experienced gynecological pathologist. A misdiagnosis can lead to inadequate surgical and adjuvant treatment. Adjuvant multi-agent chemotherapy and high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue may prolong the progression-free interval and overall survival.

Keywords: Carcinoma, Small Cell, Chemotherapy, Adjuvant, Hypercalcemia, young adult