Single-Setting Superior Vena Cava Biopsy and Stenting Utilizing Cone Beam Computed Tomography as an Additional Tool
Daniel Yuxuan Ong, Lawrence Han Hwee Quek, Ivan Kuang Hsin Huang, Gavin Hock Tai Lim, Gabriel Chan, Yi-Wei Wu, Seung Wook Ryu, Uei Pua
Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, Singapore
Am J Case Rep 2021; 22:e929048 :: DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.929048
Available online: 2021-02-12, In Press, Corrected Proof
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Malignant disease is a common etiology of superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS). Being a medical emergency, it often requires rapid diagnostic evaluation and therapy. Transcaval biopsy and endovascular stenting in a single-setting has been described, but only in a handful of cases. These cases utilized intra-operative venograms. In this study, we also used intra-operative cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to increase the safety and efficacy of such single-setting procedures.
From January 2017 to July 2019, there were 5 patients with malignant SVCS who underwent single-setting superior vena cava biopsy and endovascular stenting utilizing intra-operative CBCT as an adjunct. Demographic data, clinical presentation, investigation results, procedural details, and patient outcomes were recorded. CBCT was utilized in all cases to optimize sampling of biopsies, visualize subsequent stent positioning, and for early detection of procedure-related complications. Transcaval biopsy was diagnostic in 4 of the 5 patients. Endovascular stents were deployed successfully in all cases, with post-stenting venogram demonstrating relief of prior obstructed segments. One patient had a complication of an apical pneumothorax, with no associated long-term pneumothorax-related morbidity or mortality.
CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates that single-setting transcaval biopsy and stenting in the context of malignant SVCS is a cost-efficient, safe, and feasible approach. In addition, the additional use of intra-operative CBCT is a useful tool to increase procedure efficacy and safety.
Keywords: Biopsy; Cone-Beam Computed Tomography; Endovascular Procedures; Superior Vena Cava Syndrome