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Medical Science Monitor Basic Research


Xanthogranulomatous Prostatitis: Novel Presentation of a Rare Condition

Unusual clinical course, Challenging differential diagnosis, Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment, Clinical situation which can not be reproduced for ethical reasons

Chenelle M.C. Joseph

USA Department of Internal Medicine and Psychiatry, Altru Health System, Grand Forks, ND, USA

Am J Case Rep 2021; 22:e932869

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.932869

Available online: 2021-07-28

Published: 2021-09-03


BACKGROUND: Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is rare, with no more than 10 to 15 cases reported to date. The presentation typically includes lower urinary tract or lower urinary tract infection symptoms. The present case report describes a 65-year-old man diagnosed with xanthogranulomatous prostatitis after a prolonged course of atypical symptoms. Symptom remission was achieved with low-dose Cymbalta and 6 weeks of ciprofloxacin.
CASE REPORT: A 65-year-old man had a 1-year history of pelvic floor disorder, including treatment-resistant tenesmus and rectal and perineal pain. The patient eventually developed a reduced urinary steam with urinary retention. On digital rectal examination, his prostate was non-tender and had significant firmness on the left side. Magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate with and without contrast showed a Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data Stem 5 lesion involving the left peripheral zone of the prostate with diffuse enhancement and low signal throughout the gland. Suspicious adjacent lymphadenopathy also was present. The patient’s prostate-specific antigen level was within the normal range at 2.4 ng/mL. All 13 left prostatic biopsy specimens showed acute and chronic inflammatory changes with prominent xanthogranulomatous features and without evidence of necrosis. All of the patient’s symptoms, including pain, resolved after he started taking Cymbalta and completed a 6-week course of ciprofloxacin.
CONCLUSIONS: The present case report describes an atypical presentation of xanthogranulomatous prostatitis, which started with symptoms of pelvic floor disorder that preceded urinary symptoms by at least 1 year. The patient’s symptoms improved after he started taking Cymbalta and completed a 6-week course of ciprofloxacin, 500 mg twice daily, and without concurrent treatment with an alpha blocker, corticosteroids, or pelvic floor therapy.

Keywords: Adenocarcinoma, necrobiotic xanthogranuloma, Pelvic Floor Disorders, Prostatitis