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CaseRepClinPractRev 2001; 2(2):168-171
Exacerbations of chronic bacterial bronchitis are most frequently caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Numerous factors, both environmental and individual, play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of the disease. Antibacterial treatment of exacerbated chronic bronchitis is usually empirical. Cefaclor can be the antibiotic used in such exacerbations. Favorable characteristics of cefaclor, distinguishing it among other antibiotics, are its immunomodulating properties and anti-inflammatory activity involving, among others, reduction of the amount of inflammation mediators and of histamine release. The incidence of relapses after the completion of treatment is reduced owing to lack of immunosuppression of negative effect on natural bacterial flora of the gastrointestinal tract.