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Edyta Zbroch, Jolanta Małyszko, Michał Myśliwiec, Piotr Przybyłowski, Magdalena Durlik
Ann Transplant 2012; 17(1): 100-107
Hypertension (HT) is one of the most frequent complications of solid organ transplantation; about 70–90% of this population have high blood pressure or require antihypertensive therapy. Abnormal blood pressure is a potent non-immunological risk factor directly related to patient and graft survival. The etiology of hypertension after orthotopic heart transplantation is multifactorial and varies depending on the time following transplantation. In the early period after transplantation, hypertension is generally related to intravascular volume expansion and persistently increased systemic vascular resistance. Other factors predominant in kidney allograft recipients include: donor age, donor familial history of hypertension, transplant renal artery stenosis, graft function, the recurrence or de novo appearance of glomerulonephritis in transplanted kidney, and post-biopsy arteriovenous fistula. In liver and heart transplantation, hypertension is mainly due to impaired kidney function, with all its consequences. Another contributing factor is immunosuppressive regimen based on calcineurin inhibitors and steroids. The management of post-transplant hypertension usually requests non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment. In this review, the pathogenesis and treatment of post-transplant hypertension in solid organ transplantation is presented.