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The evaluation of esophageal stenting complications in palliative treatment of dysphagia related to esophageal cancer

Krzysztof Kujawski, Magdalena Stasiak, Jacek Rysz

Med Sci Monit 2012; 18(5): CR323-329

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.882739

Background:    Esophageal cancer is the seventh-most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths and it is usually diagnosed at an inoperable stage. In palliative treatment, endoscopic and non-endoscopic methods are applied to reduce dysphagia in patients with neoplastic esophageal obstruction. Because of severe complications, non-endoscopic treatment (surgery, radiotherapy, brachytherapy and chemotherapy) is applied rarely. Within the endoscopic methods, only the use of endoprostheses yields long-term effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of implantation of self-expandable esophageal stents in palliative treatment of dysphagia related to esophageal cancer.
    Material/Methods:    A total number of 46 patients (41 males and 5 females) were qualified to palliative implantation of coated self-expandable stent. The mean age of the patients was 67 years (from 51 to 78 years). In all patients, Evolution-type coated self-expandable stents were used. In all cases, 24 hours after the implantation, radiological examination was performed to assess the stent location.
    Results:    Severe, possibly life-threatening, complications constituted 28% of all the complications and occurred in 9% of the patients. Less severe complications occurred in 17% of the observed patients and were not life-threatening.
    Conclusions:    In patients with neoplastic esophageal stenosis, stenting with coated, self-expandable nitinol prostheses is a safe, effective and fast method of palliative dysphagia treatment.

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