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Expression of N-Myc Downstream-Regulated Gene 2 in Bladder Cancer and Its Potential Utility as a Urinary Diagnostic Biomarker

Miao Zhang, Bo Ren, Zhi Li, Wenyan Niu, Yueling Wang

(Department of Laboratory Medicine, Shangdong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shangdong University, Jinan, Shangdong, China (mainland))

Med Sci Monit 2017; 23:4644-4649

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.901610

BACKGROUND: Initial diagnosis of carcinoma of the urinary bladder remains challenging. N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) has been reported to be closely correlated with cell differentiation and proliferation in various cancers. However, its clinical significance in diagnosis of bladder cancer remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to detect the expression of NDRG2 and investigate its diagnostic value in bladder cancer.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: We recruited 127 patients with bladder cancer and 97 healthy controls. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting analysis were conducted to measure the NDRG2 expression levels in urine of patients with bladder cancer, bladder cancer cell lines, and healthy controls. The correlations between NDRG2 expression and clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed by chi-square test, and the diagnostic value of NDRG2 was estimated by establishing a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.
RESULTS: The relative NDRG2 expression were significantly downregulated both at mRNA and protein levels in urine of patients with bladder cancer and in cell lines, and its low expression was distinctively correlated with tumor grade and stage. The ROC curve showed NDRG2 could be a good diagnostic marker, with an AUC of 0.888, indicating high sensitivity and specificity.
CONCLUSIONS: NDRG2 was decreased in patients with bladder cancer and might be involved in the progression of this malignancy. Moreover, NDRG2 could be a potential independent diagnostic biomarker for bladder cancer.

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