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Pulmonary Kaposi Sarcoma with Osseous Metastases in an Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Patient: A Remarkable Response to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

Ahmed Dirweesh, Muhammad Yasir Khan, Shaikh Fawad Hamiz, Nigahus Karabulut

(Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Francis Medical Center, Seton Hall University, Trenton, NJ, USA)

Am J Case Rep 2017; 18:181-185

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.902355

BACKGROUND: Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is known to involve the mucocutaneous tissues and the aero-digestive tracts. In acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, KS has an aggressive course and carries poor prognosis. We present a case of pulmonary KS with osseous metastases as the first presentation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a young male. The lesions impressively decreased in size and numbers following initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
CASE REPORT: A 34-year-old heterosexual male presented with a one month history of cough and 15–20 pound weight loss within six months. Examination revealed oral thrush, decreased breath sounds and crackles on the right lower lung base. Imaging showed a large right perihilar mass with multiple lytic lesions involving thoracic and lumber vertebrae, ribs, sternum, and clavicles. Blood and sputum cultures, smears for acid fast bacilli, and a QUANTIferon gold test were all negative. He tested positive for HIV and his CD4 count was 7 cells/uL. Bronchoscopy with biopsy was unrevealing. Pathology of the right hilar mass was diagnostic of KS. Following initiation of antiretroviral therapy his condition dramatically improved; repeat chest CT scan showed marked regression of the bony and pulmonary lesions.
CONCLUSIONS: The dual action of HAART on the recovery of the immune system and against human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) may essentially cause regression of KS lesions.

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