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Predictors of Long-Term Mortality and Frequent Re-Hospitalization in Patients with Acute Decompensated Heart Failure and Kidney Dysfunction Treated with Renin-Angiotensin System Blockers

Canan Baydemir, Dilek Ural, Kurtuluş Karaüzüm, Sibel Balci, Onur Argan, Irem Karaüzüm, Güliz Kozdağ, Ayşen A. Ağır

(Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, Kocaeli University, School of Medicine, Kocaeli, Turkey)

Med Sci Monit 2017; 23:3335-3344

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.902786


BACKGROUND: Assessment of risk for all-cause mortality and re-hospitalization is an important task during discharge of acute heart failure (AHF) patients, as they warrant different management strategies. Treatment with optimal medical therapy may change predictors for these 2 end-points in AHF patients with renal dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictors for long-term outcome in AHF patients with kidney dysfunction who were discharged on optimal medical therapy.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted retrospectively. The study group consisted of 225 AHF patients with moderate-to-severe kidney dysfunction, who were hospitalized at Kocaeli University Hospital Cardiology Clinic and who were prescribed beta-blockers and ACE-inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers at discharge. Clinical, echocardiographic, and biochemical predictors of the composite of total mortality and frequent re-hospitalization (≥3 hospitalizations during the follow-up) were assessed using Cox regression and the predictors for each end-point were assessed by competing risk regression analysis.
RESULTS: Incidence of all-cause mortality was 45.3% and frequent readmissions were 49.8% in a median follow-up of 54 months. The associates of the composite end-point were age, NYHA class, respiration rate on admission, eGFR, hypoalbuminemia, mitral valve E/E’ ratio, and ejection fraction. In competing risk regression analysis, right-sided HF, hypoalbuminemia, age, and uric acid appeared as independent associates of all-cause mortality, whereas NYHA class, NT-proBNP, mitral valve E/E’ ratio, and uric acid were predictors for re-hospitalization.
CONCLUSIONS: Predictors for all-cause mortality in AHF with kidney dysfunction treated with optimal therapy are mainly related to advanced HF with right-sided dysfunction, whereas frequent re-hospitalization is associated with volume overload manifested by increased mitral E/E’ ratio and NT-proBNP levels.

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