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A Case of Kidney Involvement in Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome

Farid Arman, Hania Shakeri, Niloofar Nobakht, Anjay Rastogi, Mohammad Kamgar

(Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA)

Am J Case Rep 2017; 18:622-626

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.903476

BACKGROUND: Sjögren’s syndrome is an autoimmune disorder caused by the infiltration of monocytes in epithelial glandular and extra-glandular tissues. Hallmark presentations include mouth and eye dryness. Although renal involvement is uncommon in primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS), patients may experience renal tubular acidosis type I (RTA I), tubulointerstitial nephritis, diabetes insipidus (DI), nephrolithiasis, and Fanconi syndrome. However, it is atypical to see more than 1 of these manifestations in a single patient.
CASE REPORT: We present the case of a 24-year-old woman with polyuria and polydipsia, who was initially diagnosed with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. She also had chronic hypokalemia and nephrolithiasis. Based on clinical presentation and work up, she was diagnosed with pSS and treated accordingly.
CONCLUSIONS: This was a pSS patient with tubulointerstitial nephritis, diabetes insipidus, renal tubular acidosis, hypokalemia, and nephrolithiasis, who was receiving symptomatic treatment for diabetes insipidus. Diagnosis and treatment of pSS led to significant improvement in systemic and renal presentations of the patient. pSS should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses in patients with diabetes insipidus and renal tubular acidosis.

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