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Comparison of Swirl Sign and Black Hole Sign in Predicting Early Hematoma Growth in Patients with Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Xin Xiong, Qi Li, Wen-Song Yang, Xiao Wei, Xi Hu, Xing-Chen Wang, Dan Zhu, Rui Li, Du Cao, Peng Xie

(Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China (mainland))

Med Sci Monit 2018; 24:567-573

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.906708


BACKGROUND: Early hematoma growth is associated with poor outcome in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The swirl sign (SS) and the black hole sign (BHS) are imaging markers in ICH patients. The aim of this study was to compare the predictive value of these 2 signs for early hematoma growth.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: ICH patients were screened for the appearance of the 2 signs within 6 h after onset of symptoms. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the 2 signs in predicting early hematoma growth were assessed. The accuracy of the 2 signs in predicting early hematoma growth was analyzed by receiver-operator analysis.
RESULTS: A total of 200 patients were enrolled in this study. BHS was found in 30 (15%) patients, and SS was found in 70 (35%) patients. Of the 71 patients with early hematoma growth, BHS was found on initial computed tomography scans in 24 (33.8%) and SS in 33 (46.5%). The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of BHS for predicting early hematoma growth were 33.8%, 95.3%, 80.0%, and 72.0%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of SS were 46.5%, 71.3%, 47.0%, and 71.0%, respectively. The area under the curve was 0.646 for BHS and 0.589 for SS (P=0.08). Multivariate logistic regression showed that presence of BHS is an independent predictor of early hematoma growth.
CONCLUSIONS: The Black hole sign seems to be good predictor for hematoma growth. The presence of swirl sign on admission CT does not independently predict hematoma growth in patients with ICH.

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