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Cytomegalovirus Pneumonia with Progressive Lung Volume Loss

Yu Shionoya, Hajime Kasai, Jiro Terada, Mitsuhiro Abe, Yusuke Takeda, Emiko Sakaida, Nobuhiro Tanabe, Koichiro Tatsumi

(Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba City, Chiba, Japan)

Am J Case Rep 2018; 19:1393-1397

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.911708

BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia is common in immunocompromised patients with hematological malignancies. Although the spectrum of illness caused by CMV is well-documented in immunocompromised patients, the clinical course and evolution of lung changes after initiation of antiviral therapy remain unclear.
CASE REPORT: We present the cases of 3 patients with leukemia who developed CMV pneumonia following cord blood transplantation and who presented with distinctive features on chest computed tomography (CT). In all patients, chest CT showed central peribronchial changes with severe lung volume loss. Furthermore, the patients were refractory to high-dose steroids, and the lung volume loss rapidly progressed, leading to death from respiratory failure.
CONCLUSIONS: We observed central peribronchial changes with severe lung volume loss after the acute phase in 3 cases of CMV pneumonia. While our diagnosis was made on the basis of exclusion, it is important to bear in mind that lung involvement in CMV pneumonia may be refractory to various treatment modalities and can lead to a fatal clinical course.

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