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CYFRA 21-1 and Placental Growth Factor as Screening Markers for Endometriosis

Hye-yon Cho, Min Sun Kyung

(Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hallym University Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, Kyeonggido, South Korea)

Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:1087-1092

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.912787

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the performance of serum CYFRA 21-1 and placental growth factor (PIGF) as screening markers for endometriosis.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this prospective study included 81 female patients who underwent laparoscopy to treat benign ovarian tumors. Serum samples were obtained from all study patients before surgery. Serum marker levels, including CYFRA 21-1, PIGF, cancer antigen (CA)125, CA19-9, and human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) were measured using a fluorescence immunoassay technique.
RESULTS: Forty of the patients were diagnosed with endometriosis (the study group) and 41 women were diagnosed with other benign ovarian tumors (the control group). Mean serum CYFRA 21-1 and PIGF levels were not different between these 2 groups (P=0.179 and P=0.865, respectively). Elevated serum CA125 levels (>35 U/mL) and lower CYFRA 21-1 levels (≤2.29 ng/mL) were more frequently observed in the endometriosis study group than in the control group (P<0.0001, and P=048, respectively). High serum PIGF levels (>14.2 pg/mL) were observed in both groups (P=0.226). Mean serum CA19-9 levels and HE4 levels, as well as the ROMA (risk of ovarian malignancy Algorithm) score were similar between the 2 groups. Sensitivity (95.0%) and negative predictive value (NPV) (80.0%) of CYFRA 21-1 for diagnosing endometriosis were higher than those of CA125 (sensitivity 67.5%, NPV 74.5%) and PIGF (sensitivity 20.0%, NPV 53.6%). However, the specificity (PIGF 90.2%, CA125 92.7%) and positive predictive value (PPV) (PIGF 66.7%, CA125 87.1%) of PIGF and CA125 for diagnosing endometriosis were higher than those of CYFRA 21-1 (specificity 19.5%, PPV 53.5%).
CONCLUSIONS: CYFRA 21-1 and PIGF may be promising markers to identify patients with and without ovarian endometriosis.

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