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Successful Re-Initiation of Therapeutic Hypothermia as Adjunctive Salvage Therapy in a Case of Refractory Cardiogenic Shock Due to Acute Myocardial Infarction

Fernando Boccalandro, Francisco A. Cedeno

(Procare, Odessa Heart Institute, Odessa, TX, USA)

Am J Case Rep 2019; 20:323-329

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.913459

BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock has a high mortality rate, despite prompt revascularization, advanced medical therapy and the use of mechanical circulatory support devices. Therapeutic hypothermia is associated with physiological cellular changes in the ischemic myocardium, and a trend towards improved hemodynamics in patients with AMI and cardiogenic shock, but is currently not considered to be a therapeutic modality. A case is presented that supports the role of therapeutic hypothermia as salvage therapy in patients with cardiogenic shock following AMI.
CASE REPORT: A 37-year-old man who presented with cardiac arrest following an anterior wall AMI due to occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery complicated by cardiogenic shock, underwent emergent percutaneous revascularization with placement of a stent, a percutaneous left ventricular-assist device (LVAD), and a pulmonary artery catheter. Therapeutic hypothermia was initiated to achieve a target core body temperature of between 32-34°C for 24 hours, followed by slow re-warming. However, after rewarming, the patient developed refractory cardiogenic shock, despite revascularization, pharmacological and mechanical circulatory support. A second cycle of therapeutic hypothermia was initiated as salvage therapy, leading to clinical improvement. The patient had a favorable outcome, was discharged from hospital and was able to return to work.
CONCLUSIONS: The first successful case is described in which therapeutic hypothermia was re-initiated as salvage therapy for cardiogenic shock where no other hemodynamic support resources were available.

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