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Post-Streptococcal Glomerulonephritis in Two Patients Following Deceased Donor Kidney Transplant

Miguel Tan, Randolph A. Hennigar, Joshua H. Wolf

(Piedmont Transplant Institute, Piedmont Hospital, Atlanta, GA, USA)

Am J Case Rep 2019; 20:587-591

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.914304

BACKGROUND: Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) is a well-known cause of renal injury. This disease is caused by a prior infection with specific nephritogenic strains of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus resulting in formation of immune complexes in the glomeruli. Clinical presentation can range from asymptomatic, microscopic hematuria to the nephritic syndrome which is defined by red to brown urine, nephrotic range proteinuria, edema, hypertension, and acute kidney injury. A few reports have described PSGN in kidney transplant recipients in the post-transplantation period. However, biopsy-proven, donor-derived, PSGN in kidney transplant recipients has not been described.
CASE REPORT: Kidneys were donated from a 25-year-old Caucasian female with no history of hypertension or diabetes who had anoxic brain death in the setting of sepsis due to group A Streptococcus pyogenes bacteremia. The recipients were a 55-year-old male and a 68-year-old female, both of whom had end stage renal disease (ESRD) secondary to hypertensive nephrosclerosis. The recipients had kidney biopsies, one at the time of implantation and the other on post-operative day (POD) 2. Both biopsies showed streptococcal-associated glomerulonephritis. The prompt recognition and treatment of this disease in the immediate post-operative period resulted in histological resolution of the disease as well as good graft outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS: Utilizing kidneys from donors with streptococcal bacteremia is possible while maintaining a high degree of suspicion for possible streptococcal-associated glomerulonephritis.

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