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Clinical Effectiveness of Endoscopic Stent Placement in Treatment of Acute Intestinal Obstruction Caused by Colorectal Cancer

Yinghao Cao, Shenghe Deng, Junnan Gu, Jiang Li, Ke Wu, Hai Zheng, Ping Cheng, Jinxiang Zhang, Gang Zhao, Kaixiong Tao, Guobing Wang, Kailin Cai

(Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China (mainland))

Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:5350-5355

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.914623

BACKGROUND: Emergency endoscopic intestinal stenting has been applied with increasing frequency in colorectal cancer patients with acute intestinal obstruction. However, its clinical effectiveness as compared to emergency surgery remains controversial.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The clinical data of 96 patients with acute intestinal obstruction caused by colorectal cancer from April 2012 to April 2018 were retrospectively collected. Statistical technique success rate, clinical success rate, operative time, average indwelling time of stent, complications, transition time to second-stage surgery, postoperative hospital stay, sputum rate, and postoperative infection rate were studied.
RESULTS: Endoscopic colonoscopy was successfully performed in 94 patients. The success rate of stent placement was 97.9%, and the average operative time was 35 minutes (range, 25-85 minutes). Forty-two patients underwent stage I colectomy after relief of the obstruction. The average stent retention time was 7 days (range, 5-15 days). Two patients suffered from anastomotic infection. Their intestinal preparation time, hospital stay, fistula rate, and infection rate were lower than those of patients undergoing emergency operation for colon cancer intestinal obstruction. A total of 52 patients with colon cancer underwent palliative stent placement. Three patients had complications, including 1 case of stent displacement in the palliative care group and 2 cases with perforation in the bridge surgery group.
CONCLUSIONS: Emergency endoscopic placement of an intestinal stent is safe and effective in the treatment of patients with acute intestinal obstruction caused by colorectal cancer. It is also a safe and simple procedure for patients receiving advanced palliative treatment, which greatly improves their quality of life and is easy for patients’ families to accept.

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