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Development of Secondary Microcephaly After Delivery: Possible Consequence of Mother-Baby Transmission of Zika Virus in Breast Milk

Alexandra Siqueira Mello, Ana Paula A. Pascalicchio Bertozzi, Maria Manoela D. Rodrigues, Rosa Estela Gazeta, Antônio F. Moron, Antoni Soriano-Arandes, Stéphanno Gomes Pereira Sarmento, Danila Vedovello, Andrea Cristina B. Silva, Thamirys C. Grillo Fajardo, Steven S. Witkin, Saulo D. Passos

(Laboratory of Pediatric Infectology, Department of Pediatrics, Jundiaí School of Medicine, São Paulo, SP, Brazil)

Am J Case Rep 2019; 20:723-725

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.915726

BACKGROUND: The Zika virus is an arbovirus that has as main source of transmission the bite of infected insects of the genus Aedes and has been associated with cases of congenital malformation and microcephaly in neonates. However, other sources of transmission have been identified since the emergence of this virus in the world population, such as vertical transmission by semen and possibly other body fluids such as vaginal secretion and breast milk.
CASE REPORT: An infant, born to a mother whose previous delivery was a baby with severe microcephaly, was normal and was negative for Zika virus at birth but developed secondary microcephaly 1 month later, that persisted. The baby was exclusively breast-fed and Zika virus was present in the mother’s milk.
CONCLUSIONS: We report the detection of Zika virus exclusively in the breast milk of a woman after her second delivery of an infant, who later developed microcephaly. This case is consistent with possible vertical transmission.

Keywords: Arbovirus Infections, Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical, Milk, Human

This paper has been published under Creative Common Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) allowing to download articles and share them with others as long as they credit the authors and the publisher, but without permission to change them in any way or use them commercially.
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