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Disseminated Pulmonary with Isolated Muscular Mucormycosis in an Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patient: A Case Report and Literature Review

Mustafa Fadhel, Swapnil V. Patel, Edward Liu, Lito Fune, Ethan J. Wasserman, Arif Asif

(Department of Medicine, Jersey Shore University Medical Center, Neptune, NJ, USA)

Am J Case Rep 2019; 20:1210-1215

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.916864

BACKGROUND: Mucormycosis is a serious, potentially fatal fungal infection caused by species in the Mucorales order. Together with candidiasis and aspergillosis, it is one of the most significant fungal infection that carries a high rate of mortality. Early detection and initiation of antifungal therapy with adequate surgical debridement improves the clinical outcome.
CASE REPORT: We describe a case of mucormycosis in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia who developed disseminated lung disease with muscular involvement without any cutaneous manifestation. Successful treatment was achieved with surgical debridement, amphotericin B lipid-complex and posaconazole step-down therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: Mucormycosis can present in various clinical scenarios. Key to diagnosis depends on tissues diagnosis from the affected system, as was done with lung and muscle biopsy in our patient. Clinicians should maintain high suspicion for early diagnosis and prompt treatment.

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