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Successful Depressor Effect Concomitant with Complete Normalization of High Renin and Aldosterone Profile by Percutaneous Transluminal Renal Angioplasty in a Patient with Acute Exacerbated Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction

Yosuke Takamiya, Keisuke Okamura, Kazuyuki Shirai, Hidenori Urata

(Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Fukuoka University Chikushi Hospital, Chikushino, Fukuoka, Japan)

Am J Case Rep 2019; 20:1684-1690

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.917973

BACKGROUND: Although the effect of percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) on clinical outcomes has not been established in previous clinical studies, some case reports showed that PTRA drastically improved patient outcomes. The appropriateness of PTRA should be discussed in detail.
CASE REPORT: A 59-year-old man had been on treatment for hypertension for 5 years, but his blood pressure (BP) had been poorly controlled for the past 5 months. He was hospitalized for pulmonary edema due to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). During hospitalization, ultrasound and plain computed tomography revealed atrophy of the right kidney, and laboratory investigations indicated secondary aldosteronism with high plasma renin activity (PRA). Unenhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested severe stenosis or occlusion of the right renal artery. PTRA was performed for total occlusion at the origin of the right renal artery, resulting in favorable dilation of the vessel and good blood flow.
A differential renal vein renin assay showed a right-left difference of PRA before PTRA, but this disappeared after the procedure. Both PRA and the plasma aldosterone concentration were normalized after PTRA. In addition, the patient’s BP decreased, proteinuria was reduced, diuretics could be discontinued, and his calcium channel blocker dosage was decreased.
CONCLUSIONS: The present case suggests that screening for renal artery stenosis by unenhanced MRI may be useful in patients who have HFpEF because PTRA can be used to achieve marked improvement of hypertension, endocrine abnormalities, and heart failure if stenosis is detected.

Keywords: Angioplasty, Hypertension, Magnetic Resonance Angiography, Renal Artery Obstruction

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