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Novel Therapeutic Strategy Using Interventional Radiology (IVR) for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)-Related Decompensated Liver Cirrhosis: A Case Report

Takuya Iwamoto, Issei Saeki, Isao Hidaka, Tsuyoshi Ishikawa, Taro Takami, Isao Sakaida

(Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Ube, Yamaguchi, Japan)

Am J Case Rep 2019; 20:1699-1704

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.919240

BACKGROUND: The appearance of direct acting antivirals (DAAs) has produced a major paradigm shift in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection treatment, and virus elimination has become possible in most patients. Improvement of the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score by elimination of HCV has been reported, but for decompensated liver cirrhosis, it is also important to overcome various complications before antiviral treatment.
CASE REPORT: A 72-year-old male, who had been treated for HCV-related liver cirrhosis was referred to our hospital for treatment of refractory hepatic encephalopathy. At that time, his Child-Pugh score was 10 and class was C. On contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), a splenorenal shunt, splenomegaly, and splenic artery aneurysm were noted. The disease was also complicated by cytopenia associated with hypersplenism, and embolization of the splenic artery aneurysm and partial splenic embolization (PSE) were concomitantly performed. One month after the PSE, balloon occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) for refractory hepatic encephalopathy was performed. Hepatic functional reserve improved compared with that at the first examination, and SOF/LDV therapy was initiated. Fortunately, no adverse effect occurred during treatment, and sustained virologic response (SVR) was achieved. Hepatic functional reserve further improved thereafter. At the time of this report, a Child-Pugh A status was being maintained without administration of a branched chain amino acid preparation, drugs for hyperammonemia, or diuretics.
CONCLUSIONS: We encountered a patient with decompensated liver cirrhosis accompanied by complications of hypersplenism, hepatic encephalopathy, and splenic artery aneurysm. These complications were overcome by treatment with PSE and BRTO, which led to DAAs treatment and a marked improvement of hepatic function.

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