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Intracranial High-Grade Stenosis and Hyperhomocysteinemia Presenting as Cortical Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Concomitant with Acute Ischemic Stroke in a Young Man

Weiwei Qin, Weizheng Xie, Mingrong Xia, Robert Chunhua Zhao, Jiewen Zhang

(Department of Neurology, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, School of Clinical Medicine, Henan University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China (mainland))

Am J Case Rep 2020; 21:e920606

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.920606

BACKGROUND: Cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage (cSAH) is a rare clinical presentation with different causes, but rarely happens along with acute ischemic stroke. Intracranial high-grade stenosis originated from brain has been regarded as an unusual cause of cSAH, especially in young adults.
CASE REPORT: A case of 33-year-old male presented with mild headache and spontaneous left-sided body weakness. Initial brain computed tomography (CT) showed cSAH in the right superior frontal sulcus. Further neuroimaging examinations including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), digital subtraction angiography (DSA), transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE); in addition, lumbar puncture and blood tests were performed. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) showed an acute infarction in the right frontal lobe and corona radiata of the territory of middle cerebral artery (MCA). The MR angiography (MRA) displayed no flow signal in the right middle cerebral artery M1-segment, while the DSA displayed bloodstream slowness in the right MCA M1-segment which suggested high-grade stenosis of the right MCA. The abnormal laboratory data suggested hyperhomocysteinemia, and excluded causes of thrombosis, infection, or cancer. The mechanism of cSAH may come about in severe atherosclerotic stenosis of MCAs by the broken of expanded tenuous compensatory pial vessels. The patient had good recovered at follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS: This case demonstrates cSAH with acute ischemic stroke, which is an uncommon complication, in a young adult stroke patient; a high-grade atherosclerotic stenosis of the MCA was identified as the etiology.

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