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Metastatic Lung Cancer Presenting as Monocular Blindness and Panhypopituitarism Secondary to a Pituitary Metastasis

Kelsey H. Sheahan, Gunnar C. Huffman, John C. DeWitt, Matthew P. Gilbert

(Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Larner College of Medicine, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA)

Am J Case Rep 2020; 21:e920948

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.920948

BACKGROUND: Sellar masses are most commonly pituitary adenomas, however, about 1% of surgical resected pituitary lesions are found to be metastatic disease. It is hard to distinguish pituitary adenomas from metastatic disease. The most common primary sources for pituitary metastases are breast and lung cancer.
CASE REPORT: In this paper, we report the case of a woman who presented with right-sided vision loss who was found to have a sellar mass and panhypopituitarism. Subsequent imaging showed a large mass in her left upper lung with additional lesions in the spleen and adrenal glands. Neurosurgery performed an urgent transsphenoidal resection, with pathology confirming lung adenocarcinoma.
CONCLUSIONS: This is an unusual presentation of metastatic lung cancer, with the patient’s primary symptoms being related to her pituitary metastasis and panhypopituitarism. Pituitary metastases are most commonly asymptomatic, although they can present with visual disturbances, diabetes insipidus, or panhypopituitarism. Pituitary metastases should be on the differential for sellar masses, particularly with specific radiographic findings, visual disturbances, and/or the presence of diabetes insipidus.

Keywords: Hypopituitarism, Lung Neoplasms, Pituitary Diseases

This paper has been published under Creative Common Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) allowing to download articles and share them with others as long as they credit the authors and the publisher, but without permission to change them in any way or use them commercially.
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