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Disseminated Disease by Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium celatum in an Immunocompromised Host

Maria Elena Locatelli, Salvatore Tosto, Vincenzo D’Agata, Paolo Bonaventura, Rosaria S. Grasso, Andrea Marino, Alessio Pampaloni, Daniele Scuderi, Federica Cosentino, Bruno Cacopardo

(Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, ARNAS Garibaldi Hospital, University of Catania, Catania, Italy)

Am J Case Rep 2020; 21:e921517

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.921517

BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are environmental pathogens that cause an increasing number of diseases, in particular in immunosuppressed patients. Diagnosing NTM infections may be difficult because clinical presentation is unspecific and resembles other conditions such as tuberculosis, lymphomas, or septicemia.
CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 62-year-old male with a recent history of autologous bone marrow transplantation for a follicular lymphoma admitted to our department for long-lasting remittent fever and abscess-like splenic nodules. The patient was diagnosed with mixed systemic infection by Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium celatum localized in spleen, bone marrow and kidneys.
CONCLUSIONS: In this case a rare disseminated atypical mycobacteriosis was diagnosed and treated. As far as we know this is the first case in the literature of M. abscessus localization either in the spleen or in the bone marrow. Our patient underwent a complex long-term therapy and had a complete resolution of the disease.

Keywords: Immunocompromised Host, Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous, Nontuberculous mycobacteria

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