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Hemophilus influenzae and Parainfluenza Virus Pneumonia in a Patient with AIDS

Sandhya Nagarakanti, Eliahu Bishburg

(Division of Infectious Diseases, Newark Beth Israel Medical Center, Newark, NJ, USA)

Am J Case Rep 2020; 21:e923132

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.923132

BACKGROUND: Parainfluenza viruses (PIV) are known to cause mild respiratory tract infections in immunocompetent patients but can cause severe infections in immune-compromised patients such as transplant recipients and children with HIV. PIV infection in HIV-infected adults has rarely been reported. We report a case of PIV pneumonia in an adult with AIDS who was successfully treated with oral ribavirin.
CASE REPORT: A 64-year-old man with history of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was admitted to the hospital with shortness of breath that began 3 days before. He was in respiratory distress and required mechanical ventilation on arrival. A bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) culture was positive for Hemophilus influenzae and a respiratory viral panel was positive for Parainfluenza virus. The patient was initially started on Cefepime and Trimethoprim- Sulfamethoxazole and later changed to Ceftriaxone based on culture results. As the patient’s condition did not improve after 48 h, oral ribavirin was added to treat PIV. The patient subsequently improved and was extubated after 72 h.
CONCLUSIONS: Oral ribavirin can have a beneficial effect in AIDS patients who have PIV-associated pneumonia. Further investigation of the benefit of oral ribavirin in similar cases is warranted.

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