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Successful Treatment of a Patient with Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia with Concurrent Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) R795S Mutation and Breakpoint Cluster Region-ABL1 (BCR-ABL1) Fusion: A Case Report and Literature Review

Yanhua Yue, Wei Wei, Yanting Guo, Fei Wang, Weimin Dong, Yue Liu, Yan Lin, Yang Cao, Weiying Gu

(Department of Hematology, The First People’s Hospital of Changzhou, Changzhou, Jiangsu, China (mainland))

Am J Case Rep 2020; 21:e925151

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.925151


BACKGROUND: Although the V617F mutation in the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) gene and the breakpoint cluster region-abl1 (BCR-ABL1) oncogene fusion have been considered mutually exclusive in most myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), many recent studies have described patients with both. This report describes a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and the unusual JAK2 R795S mutation and reviews 23 additional patients with JAK2 gene mutations coexisting with myelofibrosis (MF) and CML.
CASE REPORT: A 50-year-old woman with MF experienced rapid disease progression 3 weeks later, accompanied by severe abdominal pain and a white blood cell count of 257.45×10⁹/l. Karyotype analysis indicated that she was 46, XY, Philadelphia (Ph) (+) and BCR-ABL1 positive. Bone marrow aspiration after 1 cycle of chemotherapy and treatment with dasatinib showed that her marrow was hypercellular, with an increased number of megakaryocytes and 48.5% myeloblasts expressing the myeloid antigens CD33, CD13, CD34, CD117, and CD71. Next-generation sequencing identified a rare JAK2 R795S mutation. She was diagnosed with CML in blast phase, and was successfully treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT).
CONCLUSIONS: JAK2 gene mutations, including the rare JAK2 R795S mutation, can coexist with BCR-ABL1 in patients with MPNs. The clinical course of MPN in patients with both BCR-ABL1 and JAK2 mutations may be different from that in patients with classical MPNs.

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