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Pancreatic Gastrinoma, Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST), Pheochromocytoma, and Hürthle Cell Neoplasm in a Patient with Neurofibromatosis Type 1: A Case Report and Literature Review

Arif A. Arif, Peter T.W. Kim, Adrienne Melck, Andrew Churg, Zachary Schwartz, Heather C. Stuart

(Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada)

Am J Case Rep 2021; 22:e927761

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.927761

BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a multi-tumor syndrome in which affected patients develop malignancies that are rare in the overall population, such as tumors of neural or endocrine origin.
CASE REPORT: A 67-year-old woman with a clinical diagnosis of NF1 presented with abdominal pain and pneumoperitoneum. She underwent small-bowel resections for a perforated jejunal lesion and a second lesion in the ileum; pathology showed a neurofibroma at the site of the perforation and a 1-cm low-grade GIST, respectively. Additional staging with cross-sectional imaging identified a 3.7-cm pancreatic head mass and a 1.7-cm left adrenal mass; biochemical studies revealed elevated serum gastrin and urinary free metanephrines and catecholamines consistent with pheochromocytoma. Initial surgical management was a left posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy. Postoperatively, gallium-68-DOTATOC PET/CT showed uptake in the pancreatic head and a 28-mm left thyroid nodule. Months later, she had an open pancreaticoduodenectomy. Pathology showed pheochromocytoma and a low-grade (G1) gastrinoma involving 2/8 peripancreatic lymph nodes (pT3pN1M0), respectively. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid nodule showed features consistent with a Hürthle cell neoplasm. Genetic testing identified a pathogenic mutation in NF1 and no mutations in BRCA1/2, CDC72, MEN1, or PALB2. The patient continues surveillance, with no evidence of recurrent disease.
CONCLUSIONS: We report the fifth case of gastrinoma associated with NF1 and the first to arise from the pancreas. This case of a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor was associated with multiple additional neoplasms. Neuroendocrine tumors found in NF1 should raise suspicion of other malignancies.

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