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A Case of Hemorrhagic Cholecystitis and Hemobilia Under Anticoagulation Therapy

Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, Takashi Sakuma, Haruhito Kinoshita, Yasuo Nakagawa, Tomohiro Kawachiya, Junichi Hara, Hitoshi Teraoka

(Department of Surgery, Baba Memorial Hospital, Sakai City, Osaka, Japan)

Am J Case Rep 2021; 22:e927849

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.927849

BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic cholecystitis is a rare disease which can be fatal in some cases. Hemorrhagic cholecystitis can sometimes be confused with common biliary diagnoses, as its symptoms imitate other hepatobiliary diseases. We report a case of hemorrhagic cholecystitis with hemobilia caused by the administration of anticoagulant agents.
CASE REPORT: A 70-year-old man was admitted with abdominal distention and pain. Ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) showed a distended and wall-thickened gallbladder with hyperdense materials. Based on these findings and the laboratory data, the patient was diagnosed with acute cholecystitis with cholangitis. Because the patient’s hemodynamics were stable, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was performed first to improve the bile flow. The results of ERCP showed blood from the common bile duct by cannulation, which was suspected to reflect hemorrhagic cholecystitis. As the abdominal symptom and CT findings worsened on the day after ERCP, emergency laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. An examination of the specimen revealed ulcer formation on the mucosal side of the gallbladder. The patient was discharged 6 days after the operation without any surgical complications.
CONCLUSIONS: ERCP and early laparoscopic cholecystectomy were performed for a patient with hemorrhagic cholecystitis and hemobilia. Early diagnosis and treatment can lead to good outcomes in patients with hemorrhagic cholecystitis. Since the number of patients who are taking antithrombotic agents is increasing, hemorrhagic cholecystitis should be considered when any unusual imaging findings associated with cholecystitis are observed.

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